C RUBY-ON-RAILS MYSQL ASP.NET DEVELOPMENT RUBY .NET LINUX SQL-SERVER REGEX WINDOWS ALGORITHM ECLIPSE VISUAL-STUDIO STRING SVN PERFORMANCE APACHE-FLEX UNIT-TESTING SECURITY LINQ UNIX MATH EMAIL OOP LANGUAGE-AGNOSTIC VB6 MSBUILD

## Gradient Descent Variation doesn't work Tag : python , By : Pierre LeBoo Date : November 28 2020, 11:01 PM

In the first code snippet, you properly adjust your parameters in each looping iteration based on the error (loss function).

Share :

## What is the difference between Gradient Descent and Newton's Gradient Descent?

Tag : machine-learning , By : nd27182
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
Any of those help At a local minimum (or maximum) x, the derivative of the target function f vanishes: f'(x) = 0 (assuming sufficient smoothness of f).
Gradient descent tries to find such a minimum x by using information from the first derivative of f: It simply follows the steepest descent from the current point. This is like rolling a ball down the graph of f until it comes to rest (while neglecting inertia).

Tag : machine-learning , By : rusl
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
this one helps. The new scenario you describe (performing Backpropagation on each randomly picked sample), is one common "flavor" of Stochastic Gradient Descent, as described here: https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-gradient-descent-and-stochastic-gradient-descent
The 3 most common flavors according to this document are (Your flavor is C):
``````randomly shuffle samples in the training set
for one or more epochs, or until approx. cost minimum is reached:
for training sample i:
``````
``````for one or more epochs, or until approx. cost minimum is reached:
randomly shuffle samples in the training set
for training sample i:
``````
``````for iterations t, or until approx. cost minimum is reached:
draw random sample from the training set
``````

Tag : r , By : jch
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
should help you out I have a working implementation of multivariable linear regression using gradient descent in R. I'd like to see if I can use what I have to run a stochastic gradient descent. I'm not sure if this is really inefficient or not. For example, for each value of α I want to perform 500 SGD iterations and be able to specify the number of randomly picked samples in each iteration. It would be nice to do this so I could see how the number of samples influences the results. I'm having trouble through with the mini-batching and I want to be able to easily plot the results. , Sticking with what you have now
``````## all of this is the same

x <- scale(x)
data3 <- cbind(x,y)
colnames(data3) <- c("area_sqft", "bedrooms","price")
x1 <- rep(1, length(data3\$area_sqft))
x <- as.matrix(cbind(x1,x))
y <- as.matrix(y)
L <- length(y)
cost <- function(x,y,theta){
gradient <- (1/L)* (t(x) %*% ((x%*%t(theta)) - y))
}
``````
``````GD <- function(x, y, alpha){
theta <- matrix(c(0,0,0), nrow=1)
theta_r <- NULL
for (i in 1:500) {
theta <- theta - alpha*cost(x,y,theta)
theta_r <- rbind(theta_r,theta)
}
return(theta_r)
}

myGoD <- function(x, y, alpha, n = nrow(x)) {
idx <- sample(nrow(x), n)
y <- y[idx, , drop = FALSE]
x <- x[idx, , drop = FALSE]
GD(x, y, alpha)
}
``````
``````all.equal(GD(x, y, 0.001), myGoD(x, y, 0.001))
# [1] TRUE

set.seed(1)
head(myGoD(x, y, 0.001, n = 20), 2)
#          x1        V1       V2
# V1 147.5978  82.54083 29.26000
# V1 295.1282 165.00924 58.48424

set.seed(1)
head(myGoD(x, y, 0.001, n = 40), 2)
#          x1        V1        V2
# V1 290.6041  95.30257  59.66994
# V1 580.9537 190.49142 119.23446
``````
``````alphas <- c(0.001,0.01,0.1,1.0)
ns <- c(47, 40, 30, 20, 10)

par(mfrow = n2mfrow(length(alphas)))
for(i in 1:length(alphas)) {

# result <- myGoD(x, y, alphas[i]) ## original
result <- myGoD(x, y, alphas[i], ns[i])

# red = price
# blue = sq ft
# green = bedrooms
plot(result[,1],ylim=c(min(result),max(result)),col="#CC6666",ylab="Value",lwd=0.35,
xlab=paste("alpha=", alphas[i]),xaxt="n") #suppress auto x-axis title
lines(result[,2],type="b",col="#0072B2",lwd=0.35)
lines(result[,3],type="b",col="#66CC99",lwd=0.35)
}
``````
``````GD <- function(x, y, alpha, n = nrow(x)){
idx <- sample(nrow(x), n)
y <- y[idx, , drop = FALSE]
x <- x[idx, , drop = FALSE]
theta <- matrix(c(0,0,0), nrow=1)
theta_r <- NULL

for (i in 1:500) {
theta <- theta - alpha*cost(x,y,theta)
theta_r <- rbind(theta_r,theta)
}
return(theta_r)
}
``````

## If I don't provide a gradient for an op in tensorflow, how does gradient descent work?

Tag : tensorflow , By : Jonathan
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
may help you . Depends on the operation. If the operation is composed of other primitives then the Gradient Descent is able to product the auto-differentiation function.
If your operation is a new primitive, then you must provide a gradient function or gradient descent will not work.

## What is gradient descent.does gradient descent can give better result than sklearn linear regression algorithm

Tag : python , By : Tim
Date : March 29 2020, 07:55 AM
I think the issue was by ths following , https://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/sgd.html
if you want to use Gradient Descent approach, you should consider using SDRClassifier in SKlearn because SKlearn gives two Approaches to using Linear Regression. The first is LinearRegression class and is using Ordinary Least Squares solver from scipy the other one is SDRClassifier class which is an Implementation of the Gradient Descent Algorithm. So to answer your Question if you are using SDRClassifier in SKlearn then you are using an Implementation of Gradient Descent Algorithm behind the Scene.